Some thoughts on the EDC

This is a guest post and entry in our non-fiction writing contest  by Lee F

My wife and I are new to prepping and have been at it for only seven months. I have been very pleasantly surprised with the things I’ve been getting out of this pursuit which I did not expect when I started. Among these things are; closer bonding with my family, less time in front of the TV, a growing sense of purpose and control over my financial affairs and life, but most of all I’ve come to appreciate the wealth of ideas and inspiration provided by my fellow preppers, and prep sites like this one.

By circumstance we are suburban preppers and at this point we’ve improved our ability to sustain ourselves significantly by securing an off-grid permanent water supply, and heat sources for one year. Additionally, we have gone from the “3 days of food in the cupboards” category, to having a rich variety of food stuffs for six people for six months. With only four of us actually in the household, this is another great idea taken from our fellow preppers…”expect company when TSHTF”. We are continuing to increase our food supply toward the next benchmark of one year. Along the way we have had a ton of fun as a family, experimenting with canning, Dutch Oven cooking, building dedicated shelving in the garage for our supplies, our first vegetable garden, and most of all…creating and adjusting our vehicle based bug-out bags.

Another aspect of prepping I’ve come to enjoy is how preparing for what may come includes the need to parallel plan for “bugging in” and “bugging out“. The crux of this planning it seems to me, for most of us, is to expect an “event” to occur when we are away from the house. My best guess is the chances are about 50/50 for the average prepper that they will be away at work, doing errands, visiting, or some such, when then need to put their plan into action occurs. This brings us to the topic of the first and arguably most important preparation element for Doomsday…the everyday carry bag (EDC).

I have spent a fair amount of time researching many sources on this, and experimenting with my own EDC. After much thought toward the actual and practical rationale for an EDC, I humbly offer my opinion that most folks carry around too much stuff in their EDCs. Carrying a bag of any kind everywhere you go is not as natural in our culture for men as it is for women, and this is perhaps why I found doing so to be so bothersome and hard to get used to. I carried a book bag all through college, but it has been a number of years and I found carrying and EDC to be mildly annoying …this got me to thinking…man or woman, you should balance being prepared with being overloaded with stuff which in reality you most likely will never actually need instantly at your finger tips…Cool and necessary stuff to be sure, but much of it is even cooler when it is handy in my vehicle. Less is more they say, especially if carrying a bag everywhere you go is still something you’re getting used to.

The process for me worked out nicely in the end though, and went something like this…The current trend in EDCs seems to be being prepared for multiple contingencies with on the spot solutions for any emergency…I submit you should trim your EDC to only those items needed to get you the four or five hundred yards between you and your vehicle which, more than 99% of the time, is one minute or less from wherever you may be. Fewer items in your EDC doesn’t mean giving them up, it means only keeping them in your vehicle Bug Out Bag (BOB) instead…still available when needed.

The question becomes how many times in the last year have you been more than a minutes’ walk away from your vehicle? Here, one might argue the possibility that something could happen to your vehicle, or prevent you from getting to it…a Tornado slings your car into the next county, or more likely someone breaks into it, or steals it…or what if you’re trapped in a building?…but how likely is it really that you would ever need some of these items and you wouldn’t have a few minutes to get to your vehicle to get them? Sometimes you just have to make an assumption and go with it…I’ve concluded the odds of such a scenario are so small that I am comfortable with the risk, and the benefit is I have to have less in my EDC. This makes for a smaller, less bothersome bag.

The idea here is to think in terms of packing your EDC for two things only, 1.) Tools for overcoming whatever could stand between you and your vehicle, and 2.) Items so necessary if you couldn’t reach your vehicle, you’d be screwed without them. At your vehicle based BOB you can have everything you need for the three days on the road it may take to cover the miles back to your home or your bug-out location…in the mean time, you don’t have to carry anything non-essential with you everywhere you go.

If you are in an office, at a movie, or shopping somewhere, will you really need to change your socks and underwear right then and there? Or could it wait until you get to the parking lot to your car? Will a sudden and immediate need ever arise where you must build a fire in the lobby of a Denny’s using waterproof matches and a magnesium stick?, or could it wait until you’ve cleared that location in your vehicle, and are settling in for the night hours later and down the road?

When I first started carrying my EDC about five months ago it was a full size nap sack and while I liked having all the gear with me, but it wasn’t quite worth the hassle of juggling it every time I was on the move. After embracing the two assumptions above, I settled on the Maxpedition Jumbo Versa Pack. I now use this smaller satchel type bag for a combined purpose of essential EDC items, and everyday items. Even with the essential items I have identified, this bag is still just big enough for me to also include my I-Pad and my 5×9 folio with some work papers I routinely need.

Now I know I’ve been talking about streamlining this whole time, so why am I adding different non-essential items? For one good reason…by combining the two I still have less of a load than I did before, and the bag now serves two purposes (EDC, and stuff I actually need every day at multiple locations). I hate to say it but…A man purse…It is practical for me on two levels now and it makes it even more worth the hassle of carrying it around.

I would also mention you could look at the similar bag offered by 5.11 which swaps the open top bottle side pocket for a second zipper pocket (You can still fit a bottle of water inside the main compartment and it makes the bag even lower profile). My bag is black and this makes it appear to be an ordinary brief case type bag, suitable for business, and it calls no attention to itself when I’m walking around in the community. It is so nondescript in fact that after five months of carrying it with me everywhere; I’ve yet to have one person ask me anything about it…think about that!

So then, an empty (And smaller) EDC bag sits before you…what should go in it?

Based on our two assumptions above, is physical danger a possible barrier between you and your vehicle? Absolutely…In goes the handgun! (Assuming you are not already wearing it on your person).

Could darkness be an impediment? Very possible…in goes the mini LED flashlight.

Stuck in an elevator somewhere? Building collapsed and you’re trapped? A bottle of water and a bag of trail-mix would be handy, as would a whistle, a pocket knife, and a glow stick.

Need news, weather, and sports while riding out a hurricane? A charging cable for your smart phone is at hand. No power to charge your Smartphone? A 4-cell AA battery auxiliary charger is the size of an Altoids tin and will keep you tied to the airwaves for days.

On an unrelated note, if you don’t have a Smartphone yet, get one! The downloadable apps are far too valuable a tool for a prepper to not have. (Not all “events” result in the immediate disabling of cellular and satellite networks). To have the internet at your finger tips, files with libraries of everything from knots to raising rabbits, maps, GPS, built in compasses, and on and on… I especially like the Tune-In radio station app giving access to virtually every radio station on the planet, and you should also look at downloading the 5-0 Radio Police Scanner App with tens of thousands of police and fire frequencies (including those from your immediate vicinity) for you to listen in on 24/7.


So what else should go into the bag? What might occur in your presence that wouldn’t allow time to run to your vehicle, grab what is needed out of your BOB, and return? A medical emergency? Very possible…Here I can go on a final, and short tangent and offer advice to my fellow peppers on first aid. I spent seven years as a Paramedic in some of the meanest streets of America, and I have two pieces of very practical advice which will make you highly effective during medical emergencies if followed. Have the right supplies, and the right training…that’s it. What are the right supplies for your EDC? This will blow your mind…one 4″ roll of Kerlix, and one 4” roll of Coban…That’s it…

These two items are sufficient for all but the most massive traumas, traumas which by definition are more than certain to be fatal in any case. Kerlix is an absorbent gauze roll which can be wrapped around wounds, or shoved whole into larger wounds, where direct pressure is needed to staunch severe bleeding. Coban resembles the commonly known Ace bandage, but it has the unique quality of being a self adhesive (but not sticky to the touch). This allows the roll to be used loosely as a wrap that sticks to itself, or wrapped tightly to maintain any desired level of direct pressure to a wound beneath. I recall on a number of occasions using Coban even as a tourniquet. It can also be easily torn into sections and / or strips for multiple wounds or smaller wraps of small cuts on the extremities.

These two items require no scissors, pins, clips, or gloves to use, and they both will fit in the palm of your hand at the same time…They are in fact the Swiss army knife of first aid. I should clarify here I am not saying a roll of Kerlix and Coban are all the first aid supplies you will ever need, but they are just enough, just in time from an EDC to allow you to get to your car and back with a larger kit if needed. From the EDC perspective it is a most effective balance.

What about first aid training? Like many things in prepping, knowledge seems to be the key to everything. I think all serious peppers do the right things in practicing with weapons, drilling on bug out plans, researching and doing sustainability skill set building like gardening, animal husbandry, learning knots, etc, and medical skills should be no exception. As a minimum I recommend a course through the American Red Cross for first aid training. They have chapters everywhere and offer an inexpensive and effective introduction to the practice. For serious preppers I further recommend a trip to your local community college for enrollment into a Level 1 Emergency Medical Technician course (EMT-1). The beauty of the community college system in America is, without so much as a G.E.D. to one’s name, any adult can go down and pay a reasonable fee to enroll in a one semester long course (about 80 hours, or 4-5 hours per week, of mixed lecture and hands-on training, spread over 16 weeks). You will learn skills that will serve you and others for life…not a bad deal!

So, back then to our now half full EDC…That’s about it for the essentials…a weapon, food, and light…signaling and information gathering…There are some other items I carry which can’t be justified as tools to remove obstacles between my vehicle and myself, but much like you I imagine, I will carry them anyway, just because they come in handy…and because I have the room now! These items include; 2 Kleenex tissue pocket packs, Carmex lip balm, ear buds for the music files on my phone, a small Bic lighter (I know, but they are so small, why not?) a couple crystal light drink mixes, a small digital camera in an equally small padded case, a 3×5 note pad and pen, an extra clip for the gun (because I watch too many movies), a flat of aspirin, a flat of gum picks (I’m starting to get why women carry purses…), two heavy duty 24” zip ties, and a expired gift card half wrapped with 6 feet of duct tape and the other half with 2’ of Paracord (Very compact) and I still have room to spare.

I continue to experiment and I’d be interested in what others have to say on the subject for sure. I’m feeling pretty good about this plank in our strategy and we are focusing now on our Bug-Out Vehicle and Bug-Out Location. We still have a ton of work in front of us, but are enjoying the process itself, and we are learning from our fellow Prepper’s every day. Thanks to you all!

This is an entry in our non-fiction writing contest where you could win:

First Prize) Winner will receive a Nomad – 1 Person Standard Survival Package courtesy of Shepherd Survival Supply, a One Month Food Pack courtesy of Augason Farms, a $150 gift certificate for Remington Ammo courtesy of and a EcoZoom’s Versa Stove courtesy of EcoZoom stoves. A total prize value of over $875.

Second Prize) Winner will receive two (2) Rothco Sure Paks With Heater courtesy of Camping Survival, a Wise Food Vegetable bucket courtesy of LPC Survival and a Wonder Junior hand grain mill courtesy of Kitchen Kneads. A total prize value of over $509.

Third Prize) Winner will receive 3 – 27 Variety of Non Hybrid, Heirloom Non GMO Survival Seeds, 2 – Fruit Pack of Non Hybrid, Heirloom Non GMO Survival Seeds and 2- First Aid Kit with Sutures in a Waterproof Resealable Bag courtesy of Be Prepared Now. A total prize value of over $215.

Contest ends on March 30 2012.

About M.D. Creekmore

M.D. Creekmore is the owner and editor of He is the author of four prepper related books and is regarded as one of the nations top survival and emergency preparedness experts. Read more about him here.


  1. This was one of the better post I have read. Prepping can be vary overwhelming. The fact is you don’t need everything all the time but you feel like you do.

  2. Tinfoil Hat says:

    Good Article. As Preppers, we sometimes get so caught up in contingency planning that we can lose sight of practicality. I like your simplified approach to EDC. The only thing I would add is a multi-tool (I use my Gerber nearly everyday, and TS hasn’t even HTF yet), and in my case, an extra pair of eyeglasses, for folks like me, who can hardly see without them. Handgun does me no good if I can’t see what I’m shooting at. Good article!

  3. Reading your submission I realized I do something very similar. My EDC usually consists of a posket pistol (380), a Swiss Army Knife w/a light attached, and my phone. Everything else is in the car and the size of the pack is directly proportional to the distance from home.

  4. Bonfire at Denny’s!!! Sorry I couldnt resist. LOL.

    My EDC consists of a bottomless pit of a black hole aka my purse. In there I have a small first aid kit which honestly consists of bandaids and lavender essential oil as the main attraction. I think I have also thrown is some tweezers and nail clippers. yeah, I think I need to update that.
    I have a small sewing kit, which has a pre-threaded needle some safety pins and some micro mini scissors. I also carry a flashlight, multi-tool, a pocket knife, and a nail file. I know, not very prepper of me, but in all honestly, I rarely go further then the grocery store or doctors appointments, and all of that is mostly within a 5 mile radius of my house.
    Even though I dont have a lot to my EDC, I do keep my vehicle stocked. I make sure I have water, food, a first aid kit (way more advanced then the one in my purse), and entertainment for my kids. I figure the likely scenario for me will be stuck in the vehicle waiting with my kids, so that is how I focused my attention. Although, I did make sure we have a way for the kids and I to get home by foot if needed.

    • TG,
      a pre-threaded needle ? What a great and now obvious idea. Since they’re small, I might pack several. Thanks.

      • Matt in Oklahoma says:

        OhioPrepper “a pre-threaded needle”
        Suture packs are prethreaded and easy to carry.

      • I started that when one of my kids lost a button on her shirt, and she was at the age that it was a HUGE deal. I figured 2 needles, one with a light and one with a dark colored thread would cover basics. Easier then carrying around miniature spools of thread.

      • I keep three different sizes in my wallet, plus a few extra coils of thread/fishing line.

  5. Great post. Been triaged like that for a while, never even dawned on me to write it down. On my person I have my pistol, 1-2 spare mags, pepper spray, flashlight, knife and a few other small things. I wear a NIJ level 3a bomber jacket as well, which could be a lifesaver in several ways as well. All my “jacket” preps will get me to my vehicle in under 3 minutes 95% of the time…

  6. Kelekona says:

    Nice article. My resistance to having an EDC has been the absurdity of hauling what turns out to be dead weight every time I leave the house. That, and even as a cross-dressing woman I have issues with carrying a bag.

    I keep thinking of even the slightest hiccup in civilization means that there’s no one who’s clean and pressed enough to really look down on anyone else for lapses in appearance. (Katrina refugees wearing clothes improvised from garbage bags.)

    How inconvenient would it be to carry something everyday rather than just put up with the discomfort when a setback comes?

    There is one thing that still sticks with me from an article about lost-hiker survivalism, and that was a lament about how smokers were more likely to make it out since they’re almost certain to carry a lighter with them. That is the one “non-essential” that I try to remember in my pocket-fodder. Between that and a usually-filthy pocket handkerchief, I’m one step ahead of the common zombie.

    For scooter adventures, a backpack is probably going to be more useful than anything I can put in it, but the mini-aide kit, thermos, and a powerbar don’t ad weight.

  7. Being a girl, I’ve got a purse for EDC. Besides the cell, makeup and money related things, I’ve got a multi tool, a fancy box cutter, an N-95 mask in an envelope, paper, pen, pencil, a couple sinus and headache pills, lots of safety pins, clamshell hairbrush, inhaler, keys, tiny flashlight, and a tiny cheapo video camera. Then there’s the self defense stuff, but for OPSEC it shall remain unnamed.

    The car has 3 days worth of food/water, snacks, canned heat, lighters, camping and emergency road equipment, cold weather sleeping bag, GPS, road atlas, whistle, caffeine gum, mints, paper towels, wet wipes, sanitizer gel, inverter, a couple more N-95 masks, and one change of clothes including both cold and warm weather options, with toiletries. I also keep a winter coat in the car at all times, plus a business-y lightweight blazer. The only other thing I’m tempted to put in there is a porch-furniture cushion I saw in a store yesterday, in case I feel like sleeping outside, and maybe a hatchet. I also just recently acquired a knapsack that I think some of the stuff should go in instead of the plastic box it’s in. The clothes are in their own bag so if I get tired driving and want a hotel I can just take that into a hotel, instead of a whole big thing that looks like a BOB.

    • Northbound says:

      Penny P., I like your idea of adding a porch-furniture cushion. Last fall when the stores cleared out their summer merchandise, I bought two of those longer cushions for $9 each and put them to use as beds for our dogs. This year, I’ll be looking for them to include in our prepping plan. Thanks for the idea!

  8. I forgot to mention toilet paper, trash bags and paracord in the car, and I also carry a lighter even though I don’t smoke. I’m sure I forgot about 10 other things.

  9. JP in MT says:

    5-0 Radio Police Scanner App: Is this and Apple or Android app?

    • Alittle 2Late says:

      apple for sure, I have it on my phone. there’s probably a comparable for the droid.

      • JP in MT says:

        I found something similar for Android. The problem is living in the 4th largest state, with only 1 million people, we just don’t have the options the larger areas get.
        Guess I’ll just have to go back to plan 1 and get a portable scanner.

  10. Good posting! I sorta think of EDC as the right size and style of shoes. Nobody’s really fit anyone else, be it in fit or function. I can not carry those things we all know we should. Not where I work! My DW and I have settled on prepping each and every vehicle and Mommasan maintains Items in her purse, desk. We do ‘our’ best and leave the rest to luck… fate?

    • Kelekona says:

      Ah yes, I heard that for 9/11 there was a store handing out shoes for women who needed to walk out of New York.

      Shoes is an issue beyond my notice because cheap canvas shoes or my five-fingers are my most impractical, and I think I would be fine with either if I stopped walking on concrete for extended periods. I will wear steeltoes with a long skirt to formal events, though I also have a pair of loafers that turned decent for a while after getting repaired.

    • This is a good idea. I actually hate shoes, they really bother my feet, so I am normally wearing flip flops. I think I need to remember to toss my old tennies into the truck too.

    • I always have a pair of well broken in tan colored combat boots in the car.

      A seat belt cut away tool might be a good inclusion for your vehicle. I keep one in the center console of my SUV.

  11. HQ5thMar says:

    Good post. I have been doing the same keeping my EDC very light. I have in my wallet a steel tool about the size of a credit card that has 7 wrenches, a flathead screwdriver, saw, can opener and knife edge. Another tool slightly thicker than a credit card with a knife, whistle, magnifying glass, compass, awl, tweesers and magnesium rod. I have a folding knife that tucks into a belt buckle with a spring loaded release button, about 100′ of paracord as a neatly braided belt, handgun, cell phone and a pocket knife (because the emergency one in the belt buckle is only to cut the belt incase I lose my pocket knife and I need the paracord).
    My bag for work has an expandable baton, pepperspray, hadcuffs, extra mags for the handgun, firstaid kit, fixedblade knife, goves both cold weather and kevlar, 100 oz. of water, cell phone charger, power converter for my car, ski goggles, balaclava, bandana and boonie cover. I work in security explaining some of the things in my bag.

  12. Think outside the bag.
    13 pockets

    They also have jackets, vests and other items. I got a CCW vest from Sportsmans Guide for about 30 bucks that I wear a lot. Ambidextrous carry (or dual carry if that’s what floats your boat) , magazine holders and a ton of pockets. A photographers vest or fly fishing vest would work also.

    EDC doesn’t have to mean a bag

  13. To me EDC is what is on my person and an extra bag is not. I may have an EDC bag but thats just the bag I’m using the most at the time. Your emergency bag will change with your needs. The bag that heads to work with me needs to handle at work emergencies and getting back home from my place of work and my usual hang outs so my bag has foot powder, socks, water, booboo kit and the like. My car kit is for fixing the car or sheltering in place when broke down and in the boonies. It all comes down to threat analysis and then planning and from that plan grows first skills then equipment to solve the problem. K-eep I-t S-imple S-illy! You don’t need an INCH bag to go to the mall and you may need a wrench or two in the trunk of the car

    • jackpine,
      My understanding of an EDC is the same as yours, and that is what is actually on my person, every day when I leave my home. When in the home I carry two knives, a handgun, cell phone and keys, but when I leave the house I always wear a 5.11 Tactical vest with contents too numerous to list here (although you can find the contents and photo in the archives). To me, the concept of an EDC bag only works if the bag goes with you everywhere. That includes meetings and trips to the restroom. Leaving it at your desk and having to exit the building from a meeting due to a fire alarm (either real or a drill) means it doesn’t really qualify IMO as EDC. Living in a rural setting, I quite often car pool and catch rides with other people to save duplicating trips and mileage, so this vest is a way to have a combination car kit and EDC for the trips where you don’t have the luxury of your own car and it’s always present kit .

  14. I think we may have a problem. It never hurts to be prepared. I’m not saying to get a bunker but just think ahead a little. “What if???”
    Check this out:
    You may find some info you can use. If not it is an interesting read!

  15. Matt in Oklahoma says:

    EDC is what you carry. For me it breaks down like this:
    Protection – G26, spare mag, large assist open folder knife

    Tools – Smaller folder Kershaw knife, Gerber multi-tool (also weapons), P38 can opener

    Fire- Mag stick on keychain with small keychain container with dryer lint and charcloth (legal even for flying under current TSA guidelines)

    Cordage- 550 Keyfob, 550 Bracelet (shelter building, fishing, sewing etc etc)

    Commo-Cell Phone (can also destroy battery to make fire), ballpoint pen and sharpie

    Multi Use -Bandanna

    Light- Small Cree Flashlight (also an impact weapon)

    Thats it for me. True EDC that is in the pockets everyday that doesnt fall out, get dropped, get stolen while laying there etc. It’s what I carry in wallie world, church, work or dates with my wife and no matter how I am dressed.
    Base it on your NEEDS not what someone else doesnt THINKS you will need because no one really KNOWS what the emergency you will face will be or where you actually live.

  16. Rather than coban I use vet wrap. Its the same thing but stronger and cheaper because its meant for use on animals.

  17. riverrider says:

    keep your edc close/on you april 1. no april fools, spaceweather says a 63 meter wide ‘roid will pass 0.6 lunar distances from earth. thats 6/10th the distance to the moon. and that changed from 0.7 the other day. some say the earths gravity could pull it in. i don’t know, but i’m keeping an eye out. and adding a hacksaw to my edc:)

    • Kelekona says:

      Well my mind fogged over pleasantly with the TV series’ version of this exchange.

      You really think the world’s going to end?
      (Ford nods)
      Shouldn’t we lie down or put a bag over
      our heads or something?

      If you want.

      Will it help?

      Not really.

      • riverrider says:

        thats like the project we did in college..what would you do if you got the 20 minute warning of incoming russian missiles? there were elaborate evac plans and bunker plans etc…. my plan was to walk to the 7-11 on the corner, get a 40oz and sit back and watch the pretty light show… i got an “A”. we were in norfolk, no 20 minute way out on a good traffic day and about a hundred megatons aimed at us.

  18. How refreshing there are some out there that believe you must have a overstuffed ALICE pack with you at all moments. Truth be told a good amount of know how, and a little kit (like a Altoids Tin Kit), can go a long way. A small messenger bag kit is fat city.
    IF your a bus/subway rider in a major city a small backpack would be your best ticket, not too big or heavy and less for someone on to, especially if you have to hoof it out of downtown, to your house or apt. The bigger bag can get you a better style of shoe for running or a long walk, than high heels or a leather dress shoe. That and a good wool sweatshirt and a GORTEX rain /wind shell can save your life, if the disaster takes place during foul or cold weather.

    But equipment never should take place of primitive skills know how, on shelter, fire making, foraging for food and water, ect, is necessary.

    I say two thumbs up for this articile in the contest.

  19. I recently took an advance level medical class. The first question the instructor asked us was, “What do you have with you to take care of an injury”. I have a “First Out Bag” that is better than anything the Fire Dept or Paramedics carry. Unfortuneatly it was on my car. This realy bothered me, so I now have a Quickclot Bandage and a SWAT-T touniquet as well as my other EDC items in my cago pocket. Their small, light and thin enough not to get in my way.

  20. Excellent article. After I read it I had to go back and evaluate my EDC. Because of our small children, people don’t look twice when they see me with a backpack. If they only knew what was inside.
    Note, if you go to most family events you will be required to ditch all your metal defense enhancers. Guns, batons, and knives are not welcome at the zoo. In this modern age there are alternatives that mean you do not have to be unarmed. After all what harm can a pen do? Plexiglass is very sturdy and wrapped with duct tape or 550 cord makes an excellent edged defense. It is available at most home improvement stores for a reasonable price.
    Deo adjuvante non timendum

    • I had to come back and thank Lee F again. I’m working on my EDC but am not extensively familiar with new type gauze/field dressings and adhesives. I have seen on other posts having to do with emergency medical care that a tampon or sterile pad makes a good start to a pressure bandage. What is the author’s or any other EMT/medic thoughts on these items? Are any of you set up to provide IV solutions should they be required?

  21. I definitely can NOT agree with article 🙂 because i have no car 😀
    I only want to tlell that if somebody is a big fan of Mxpdtn there is an option to get Jumbo without open top bottle side pocket – JUMBO L.E.O.
    And, of course, thank Lee F for writing.

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